Ballot Access News -- December 8, 1998

Volume 14, Number 9

This issue was originally printed on white paper.

Table of Contents
  1. VIRGINIA COMMITTEE PASSES PARTY PETITION BILL
  2. LOW VOTER TURNOUT MEANS LOWER HURDLES
  3. FLORIDA PROGRESS
  4. LATE ELECTION RETURNS BOOST MINOR PARTIES
  5. CALIFORNIA RULING HELPS REFORM PARTY
  6. LAWSUIT NEWS
  7. REFORM PARTY RECORD
  8. GOOD BILLS COMING
  9. ANOTHER PARTISAN WIN
  10. NON-PARTISAN WINS
  11. 2000 PETITIONING FOR PRESIDENT (table)
  12. 1998 REGISTRATION TOTALS (table)
  13. 1998 GUBERNATORIAL VOTE (table)
  14. 1998 GUBERNATORIAL PERCENTAGES (table)
  15. Subscription Information

VIRGINIA COMMITTEE PASSES PARTY PETITION BILL

WOULD QUALIFY NEW PARTY FOR ALL OFFICE WITH 10,000 SIGNATURES

On November 9, the Virginia House Elections Committee passed HB 47 by 13-5, with one abstention. Four of the five "no" votes were cast by Democrats, but a majority of Democrats (as well as a majority of Republicans) who were present, voted "Yes". HB 47 would provide a procedure by which a group could become a qualified party by submitting a petition signed by 10,000 voters. The petition must contain 200 signatures from each of the eleven congressional districts in the state.

Virginia has been one of eleven states which have no petition or registration procedure by which a group may become a qualified party. Instead, in these eleven states, there are no ballot access procedures except for candidate petitions, and if one of the group's candidates gets enough votes, only then can the group become a "party". Since the Virginia vote test is 10%, it is rare for any minor party to be qualified. The Reform Party held that status from 1994 to 1997, and the American Independent Party had it from 1968 to 1969.

The bill will receive a vote in the House during January. Anyone wishing to help lobby for the bill may contact Shelley Tamres, 108 Willow Place, Sterling, VA 20164; shelley-tam@aol.com; (703)-450-0218.


LOW VOTER TURNOUT MEANS LOWER HURDLES

Only 36% of the potential electorate voted last month, the lowest turnout for a national election since 1942. In many states, the number of signatures needed for ballot access is a percentage of the last vote cast. Since turnout was so low, the number of signatures needed in these states dropped. In 2000, it will be possible for the presidential candidate of a new party to get on the ballot in all states with fewer than 650,000 valid signatures, for the first time since 1968.


FLORIDA PROGRESS

On December 2, the Florida Senate Business, Ethics & Elections Committee had a hearing to discuss how to implement Revision Eleven, which the voters passed last month. Revision Eleven amended the state Constitution to provide that minor party and independent candidate ballot access must not be more severe than ballot access for major party candidates. In Florida, a major party is one which has registration membership of 5% of the state total. No party other than the Democratic and Republican Parties has ever held 5% of Florida's voter registration.

The first draft of the bill to alter the election code (so that it complies with the new Constitutional provision) is very favorable to minor parties. For presidential elections, it provides that minor parties which have submitted a list of party officers to the Secretary of State, and which hold a national presidential nominating convention, may place their presidential and vice-presidential nominees on the ballot, simply upon request. Of course, they must also submit a slate of 25 presidential elector candidates.

Also, the first draft of the bill provides that all parties, rather than just major parties, should receive a rebate of approximately half of any candidate's filing fee. Assuming that any minor party would then refund the money to its own nominee, this in effect reduces the filing fee burden by almost half. There are no filing fees for president in Florida, but filing fees for all other office are extraordinarily high, 6% of the annual salary of the office being sought.

Florida activists hope that the final version of the bill will also further decrease the filing fees, and will also decrease the number of signatures in lieu of the filing fee.


LATE ELECTION RETURNS BOOST MINOR PARTIES

The November 8 Ballot Access News reported on which parties had polled enough votes on November 3 to be "qualified", based on preliminary results. However, when all the ballots were finally counted, two more parties had joined the list.

The New Party (called "Working Families") qualified in New York, and the Green Party qualified in Alaska, by a margin of 12 votes in the gubernatorial race.

Also, the November 8 B.A.N. erroneously stated that the Reform Party had been disqualified in Rhode Island; actually it is still qualified there.


CALIFORNIA RULING HELPS REFORM PARTY

On December 3, the California Secretary of State ruled that if a party has enough registrations on January 31, 1999, it will be automatically qualified for the ballot in 2000 and 2002, even if it doesn't maintain that level of registration at the registration tally taken in October 1999.

This is good news for the Reform Party, which had 88,425 registants at the most recent tally, in October 1998. The number of registrants needed for a party to requalify still is unknown, but it seems likely to be 87,000 (the exact number will be known on December 12). Probably the Reform Party will just squeak by, although to be safe, the party will increase its registration between now and January 31, since some voters will be purged from the rolls. Without the ruling, the party would be off the ballot until October 1999, and would have had a more difficult time maintaining its registration.

The ruling also gives the Peace & Freedom Party a chance to re-qualify quickly, if it can gain approximately 15,000 registrations.


LAWSUIT NEWS

1. Arkansas: on November 16, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear Citizens for Clean Government v Russell, 98-397. The 8th circuit had struck down campaign contribution limits of $100 to legislative candidates, and had also struck down a law limiting anyone from giving more than $200 to any one PAC.

2. California: on December 8, the 9th circuit will hear California Pro-Life Council v Scully, 98-15308, over the campaign contribution limits passed by voters in Nov. 1996 ("prop. 208"). The lower court had invalidated most of the law. The judges will be Stephen Reinhardt (Carter), John Noonan (Reagan) and Michael Hawkins (Clinton).

3. District of Columbia: On December 18 there will be a hearing in Turner v D.C. Board of Elections, 98-2634, an ACLU case to force the Board of Elections to count the votes cast for or against a medical marijuana intiative that appeared on last month's ballot. The D.C. government is afraid to count the votes, since Congress passed a rider to the Appropriations Act, forbidding it to spend any money to count the votes.

4. Florida: on November 25, the 11th circuit refused the plaintiff's rehearing request in Green v Mortham, 98-2042, over the amount of Florida candidate filing fees.

5. Iowa: on October 28, a Natural Law Party candidate asked the U.S. Supreme Court to hear his debates case, Marcus v Iowa Public TV, 98-710. The candidate, Jay Marcus, had been excluded from a U.S. House debate sponsored by public TV because he wasn't "newsworthy". The station didn't seek any information about the size of his campaign. Marcus argues that the facts in his case are different than the facts in the other recent U.S. Supreme Court debates case, Arkansas Educational TV v Forbes.

6. Maine: on December 10 the First Circuit will hear Maine Green Party v Secretary of State, 98-1309, over the state's definition of "party". The Green Party regained "party" status last month by polling over 5% for Governor.

However, the state won't recognize it until April 2000, so it will miss the presidential primary in March 2000. The party also got over 5% for Governor in 1994, the last time Governor was on the ballot; but it was eliminated after the 1996 election because it didn't poll 5% for president. It argues that the state has no reason to apply the 5% test for president as well as for Governor.

Maine (2): On October 23, initiative proponents asked the U.S. Supreme Court to hear Hart v Gwadosky, 98-676, against a law which requires petitioners to be registered voters. The State Supreme Court had upheld the law.

7. Missouri: On November 30, the 8th circuit struck down contribution limits of $1,075 for statewide office, $525 for state senate, and $275 for state house. Shrink Missouri Government PAC v Adams, no. 98-2351. The judges were Pasco Bowman (Reagan), Donald Ross (Nixon) and John Gibson (Reagan).

8. Ohio: on November 16, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear Cincinnati v Kruse, 98-454. Back in 1976, that Court had ruled expenditure limits unconstitutional (in the absense of public funding). Cincinnati had passed them anyway, and had hoped to get a chance to persuade the Court to reverse itself.

9. Oregon: on November 10, the state asked the U.S. Supreme Court to reinstate a law restricting contributions to state legislative candidates from people who live out of the district. The 9th circuit had invalidated the law. Miller v Vannatta, 98-775.

10. Wyoming: On October 13, intiative proponents asked the U.S. Supreme Court to hear their case against state law which says when a voter abstains from voting on an initiative, that is counted as a "no" vote. Brady v Ohman, 98-625.


REFORM PARTY RECORD

The Reform Party polled over 1,000,000 votes for its gubernatorial candidates this year (see table below). No other third party had done this since 1914, when the Progressive Party did it.


GOOD BILLS COMING

1. Massachusetts: bills have been pre-filed to (1) add a filing fee alternative to petitions, for candidates seeking a place on a primary ballot; (2) let any registered voter sign a petition to place a candidate on a primary ballot; (3) provide that if a party meets the vote test, it lasts for four years, not two years; (4) relax the date on which a new party, seeking "party" status, must have registration of 1% of the total; currently the job must be done by February of an election year, even though the primary is in September. For more information, contact Jason Solinsky at sol-man@uspowersolutions.com.

2. Pennsylvania: Rep. Todd Platts (R-York) will again introduce a bill to improve ballot access. This time it will probably have at least 16 cosponsors.

3. Texas: Rep. Jim Keffer (R-Eastland) will again introduce his bill to ease ballot access. It passed its first committee hurdle in 1997, but then ran out of time.

4. Washington: Rep. Velma Veloria (D-Seattle) will probably introduce a bill to cut the primary vote test for statewide candidates from 1% to one-half of 1%.

5. West Virginia: Rep. Barbara Fleischauer (D-Morgantown) has again introduced her bill to let voters vote in a primary and sign a minor party petition.


ANOTHER PARTISAN WIN

The last issue listed minor party wins in partisan elections. Another was by the Cool Moose Party, to the Hopkinton, Rhode Island city council.


NON-PARTISAN WINS

Last month, in addition to partisan victories, minor parties won seats on non-partisan city & county councils:

  1. Greens in California: Berkeley, Menlo Park, Point Arena, Santa Cruz, Santa Monica, Sebastopol, and Yucaipa;
  2. New Party in Little Rock, Arkansas, and Multnomah County, Oregon;
  3. Libertarians in California: Arcata, Moreno Valley, and Saratoga.
Also, Libertarians won District Attorney in Mendocino County, California.


2000 PETITIONING FOR PRESIDENT (table)

STATE REQUIREMENTS SIGNATURES COLLECTED DEADLINE
FULL PARTY CAND. LIB'T REFORM NAT LAW TAXPAYR GREEN
Alabama 39,536 5,000 5,000 0 0 0 0 Aug 31
Alaska (reg) 6,596 #2,410 already on already on 0 0 already on Aug 8
Arizona 13,569 es. #9,500 already on 0 0 0 0 June 29
Arkansas 21,181 #1,000 0 0 0 0 0 Aug 1
California (reg) 86,027 149,692 already on 88,425 already on already on already on Aug 10
Colorado (reg) 1,000 #pay fee already on 10 already on 10 already on Aug 1
Connecticut no procedure #7,500 0 already on 0 0 already on Aug 11
Delaware es. (reg.) 235 es. 4,700 already on already on already on already on 14 Aug 19
District of Columbia no procedure es. #3,500 can't start can't start can't start can't start can't start Aug 15
Florida just be org. undetermnd unsettled unsettled unsettled 0 unsettled undetermd
Georgia 39,094 #39,094 already on can't start can't start can't start can't start Jul 11
Hawaii 6,015 #3,703 0 0 100 0 already on Sep 7
Idaho 9,835 4,918 already on already on already on already on 0 Aug 31
Illinois no procedure #25,000 can't start can't start can't start can't start can't start Aug 6
Indiana no procedure #30,717 already on 0 0 0 0 Jul 15
Iowa no procedure #1,500 0 0 0 0 0 Aug 17
Kansas 14,854 5,000 already on already on 0 already on 0 July 31
Kentucky no procedure #5,000 already on already on 0 0 0 Aug 30
Louisiana est. (reg) 135,000 #pay fee 691 already on 14 40 89 Sep. 5
Maine 21,051 #4,000 0 0 0 0 already on May 25
Maryland 10,000 es. 26,000 12,000 0 0 0 0 Aug 7
Massachusetts est. (reg) 37,500 #10,000 already on 2,289 59 0 311 July 31
Michigan 30,272 30,272 already on already on already on 0 0 July 19
Minnesota 105,268 #2,000 0 already on 0 already on 0 Sep 12
Mississippi just be org. #1,000 already on already on already on already on 0 Sep 7
Missouri 10,000 10,000 already on already on 0 already on 0 July 31
Montana 16,039 #16,039 already on already on already on 0 0 Aug 1
Nebraska 5,367 2,500 already on 0 0 0 0 Aug 28
Nevada 4,099 4,099 already on 0 already on already on 0 July 2
New Hampshire 9,569 #3,000 0 0 0 0 0 Aug 9
New Jersey no procedure #800 0 0 0 0 0 July 30
New Mexico 2,494 14,964 already on already on 0 0 already on Sep 11
New York no procedure #15,000 can't start already on can't start can't start already on Aug 21
North Carolina 51,324 es. 90,000 already on 0 0 0 0 June 30
North Dakota 7,000 1,000 0 already on 0 0 0 Sep 7
Ohio 32,905 #5,000 20,000 0 22,000 0 0 Aug 23
Oklahoma 43,680 36,202 0 0 0 0 0 July 15
Oregon 16,257 13,755 already on 0 0 0 already on Aug 28
Pennsylvania no procedure es. #25,000 can't start can't start can't start can't start can't start Aug 1
Rhode Island 15,323 #1,000 0 already on 0 0 0 Sep 7
South Carolina 10,000 10,000 already on already on already on already on 0 Aug 1
South Dakota 6,505 #2,602 0 0 0 0 0 Aug 1
Tennessee 23,819 25 0 0 0 0 0 Aug 17
Texas 37,385 56,117 already on can't start can't start can't start can't start May 28
Utah 2,000 #300 already on 0 75 0 0 Sep 1
Vermont just be org. #1,000 already on 0 0 0 0 Sep 20
Virginia no procedure #10,000 can't start can't start can't start can't start can't start Aug 24
Washington no procedure #200 can't start can't start can't start can't start can't start Jul 1
West Virginia no procedure #6,365 already on 0 0 0 0 Aug 1
Wisconsin 10,000 #2,000 already on can't start can't start already on already on Sep 5
Wyoming 3,485 3,485 already on can't start can't start can't start can't start Aug 27
TOTAL STATES ON 27 17 9 10 10

"FULL PARTY REQ." means a new party can qualify before it names candidates. # means that candidate procedure lets candidate choose a party label. "Deadline" refers to the procedure with the latest deadline. The only other nationally- organized party which is on the ballot is the New Party, which is on in New York. "Requirements" in a few states will change when official totals are released.


1998 REGISTRATION TOTALS (table)

Dem. Rep. Indp. & Misc. US Tax Reform Libt Green Nat Law other
Alaska 76,212 112,273 246,213 ? ? ? 3,303 ? 18,141
Arizona 912,613 1,013,533 317,176 ? 759 17,466 1,744 ? - -
California 6,989,006 5,314,912 1,966,240 291,678 88,425 82,079 98,443 65,433 72,969
Colorado 783,044 914,486 860,090 ? ? 3,201 1,226 1,394 - -
Connecticut 699,766 477,684 784,819 99 316 149 194 ? 1,637
Delaware 195,295 160,997 107,944 254 293 648 14 398 - -
District of Columbia 275,202 25,406 48,371 ? ? ? ? ? 5,407
Florida 3,691,742 3,292,589 1,223,675 1,356 2,695 7,037 965 207 - -
Iowa 567,441 588,061 613,543 - - 782 - - - - - - - -
Kansas 433,759 685,107 383,419 302 1,323 9,773 - - - - - -
Kentucky 1,570,461 835,465 184,413 ? ? ? ? ? - -
Louisiana 1,677,917 577,884 432,120 40 438 691 89 14 - -
Maine 300,264 270,678 352,412 ? 19,175 ? ? ? - -
Maryland 1,479,094 778,211 310,259 ? 1,752 ? ? ? - -
Massachusetts 1,388,177 485,961 1,651,050 154 2,289 7,610 311 59 3,259
Nebraska 390,800 521,142 144,208 ? 187 64 ? ? - -
Nevada 372,219 375,469 127,183 16,520 315 4,819 713 627 - -
New Hampshire 203,567 272,115 271,715 ? ? 3,207 ? ? - -
New Jersey 1,141,593 872,349 2,525,002 - - - - - - - - - - - -
New Mexico 491,337 309,344 101,295 ? 256 1,183 8,549 ? - -
New York 4,923,893 3,083,549 2,100,432 - - 122,172 - - - - - - 321,307
North Carolina 2,504,964 1,598,901 663,310 ? ? 4,754 ? ? - -
Oklahoma 1,181,004 714,163 154,903 ? 536 ? ? ? - -
Oregon 779,799 695,315 429,009 ? 1,221 11,946 2,986 1,900 1,381
Pennsylvania 3,514,970 3,072,299 638,519 7,107 2,847 23,095 ? ? - -
South Dakota 179,195 219,624 53,108 ? 50 924 ? ? - -
West Virginia 632,288 295,825 79,278 ? ? 420 ? ? - -
Wyoming 70,038 132,425 35,216 ? ? 189 ? ? - -
TOTAL 37,425,660 27,695,767 16,804,922 317,510 245,831 179,255 118,537 70,032 424,101
PERCENT 44.94 33.26 20.18 .38 .30 .22 .14 .08 .51
Note: updates exist for the above.

The parties in the "Other" column are: Alaska Independence in Alaska; Peace and Freedom in California; A Connecticut Party in Connecticut 1,089; Independence in Connecticut 548; Statehood in D.C. 4,023; Umoja in D.C. 1,384; these parties in Massachusetts: Interdependent Third 2,573, Rainbow Coalition 498, Socialist 177, Prohibition 11; these parties in New York: Conservative 166,965, Liberal 92,496, Right to Life 49,112, Freedom 12,734; Socialist in Oregon.

All data is for October or November 1998, except for all Maine data and Louisiana minor party data, which is for June 1998. November 1998 data for Maine will be reported in the next issue. Data for the Green Party in Arizona, the Libertarian and Reform Parties in New Mexico, and the Libertarian Party in Wyoming, is incomplete, since a few counties in those states couldn't provide a tally for those parties.

Dashes mean that the voters are not permitted to register into a particular party, since the particular party is not, or was not, qualified in that state, and the state won't let people register into unqualified parties. A question mark means that the state has not tabulated the number of registrants in a particular party.

Totals two years ago were: Dem. 36,946,324 (45.68%), Rep. 27,323,046 (33.78%), Indp. & misc. 15,227,612 (18.83%), U.S. Taxpayers 306,900 (.38%), Reform 207,933 (.26%), Libertarian 162,545 (.20%), Green 112,199 (.14%), Natural Law 85,853 (.11%), other parties 328,833 (.63%).

Totals four years ago were: Dem. 34,586,676 (47.13%), Rep. 24,618,092 (33.55%), Indp. & misc. 13,363,803 (18.21%), U.S. Taxpayers 246,951 (.34%), Libertarian 109,001 (.15%), Green 89,566 (.12%), other parties 370,020 (.51%).

Totals six years ago were: Dem. 35,616,630 (47.76%), Rep. 24,590,383 (32.97%), Indp. & misc. 13,617,167 (18.26%), U.S.Taxpayers 247,995 (.33%), Green 102,557 (.14%), Libertarian 100,394 (.13%), other parties 306,673 (.41%).


1998 GUBERNATORIAL VOTE (table)

Rep. Dem. Reform US Tax Lib't. Green Nat Law Marijuana Other
Alabama 554,746 760,155
Alaska 39,301 112,791 6,608 61,154
Arizona 620,188 361,552 8,371 27,150 355
Arkansas 421,376 272,622 11,080
California 3,212,359 4,854,370 37,890 73,732 103,580 31,218 59,137
Colorado 626,559 621,801 10,767 21,659
Connecticut 607,672 342,011 8,456 5,287 2,176
Florida 2,192,105 1,773,054 592
Georgia 790,201 941,076 61,531
Hawaii 198,952 204,206 4,398
Idaho 258,095 110,815 12,338
Illinois 1,714,094 1,594,191 50,372 48
Iowa 444,922 499,222 5,505 2,996 2,409
Kansas 544,882 168,243 7,830 21,710
Maine 77,627 48,836 14,172 28,045 239,194
Maryland 688,357 846,972 649
Massachusetts 967,160 901,843 32,184
Michigan 1,883,005 1,143,574 525
Minnesota 717,350 587,528 773,713 1,932 7,034 1,727 2,482
Nebraska 289,690 246,982
Nevada 223,892 182,281 7,509 7,307
New Hampshire 98,473 210,769 8,655 1,043
New Mexico 264,863 223,607
New York 2,541,143 1,557,162 361,899 5,103 52,124 24,712 146,756
Ohio 1,650,061 1,470,964 114,434 64,377
Oklahoma 505,498 357,552 10,535
Oregon 334,001 717,061 10,144 20,200 15,843 7,823 5,772
Pennsylvania 1,725,744 929,198 312,230 33,198
Rhode Island 156,180 129,105 1,848 19,250
South Carolina 484,296 570,538 14,899
South Dakota 166,621 85,473 4,389
Tennessee 668,687 287,241 17,974
Texas 2,551,454 1,165,444 20,689 896
Vermont 89,726 121,425 2,141 3,305 1,177
Wisconsin 1,048,897 678,998 10,442 10,984 6,615
Wyoming 97,235 70,754 6,899
TOTAL 29,455,412 25,149,416 1,355,731 423,176 362,337 214,130 106,414 29,744 579,646

The "Marijuana" column includes the Marijuana Reform Party in New York and the Grassroots Parties in Minnesota and Vermont. Most returns above are official, but in some states the official tallies haven't been released so for them the numbers above are unofficial.

The "Other" column consists of: Alaska, Alaska Independence (4,230), Republican Moderate (13,532) and write-ins; California, Peace & Freedom; Connecticut, Term Limits; Idaho, independent; Iowa, independent; Maine, independent; Minnesota, Socialist Workers (787) and independent; New York, Liberal (77,750), Right to Life (56,376), Unity (9,778), Socialist Workers (2,852); Oregon, Socialist; Tennessee, independents; Vermont, Liberty Union; Wisconsin, independents. The small numbers in the "other" column for states not mentioned in this paragraph are for declared write-in independent candidates.

In New York, the Democratic column includes 51,068 votes cast for the Democratic nominee on the Working Families line (that is the New Party's name in New York); the Republican column includes 346,465 votes on the Conservative line.

In gubernatorial elections four years ago, the U.S. Taxpayers/Constitutional Party had six on the ballot and received 661,603 votes. The Libertarian Party had 15 candidates on the ballot and received 405,795 votes. The Patriot/Independence Party (successor to the Reform Party) had 5 on the ballot and received 316,792 votes. The Green Party had five on the ballot and received 119,337 votes. The Grassroots Party had two on the ballot and received 22,903 votes. The Socialist Workers Party had three on the ballot and received 9,226 votes.


1998 GUBERNATORIAL PERCENTAGES (table)

Rep. Dem. Reform US Tax Lib't. Green Nat Law Marijuana Other
Alabama 42.19 57.81
Alaska 17.88 51.30 3.01 27.82
Arizona 60.95 35.53 .82 2.67 w
Arkansas 59.77 38.66 1.57
California 38.37 57.98 .45 .88 1.24 .37 .71
Colorado 48.92 48.55 .84 1.69 .69
Connecticut 62.93 35.42 .88 .55 .23
Florida 55.28 44.71 w
Georgia 44.08 52.49 3.43
Hawaii 48.82 50.11 1.08 3.51
Idaho 67.70 29.07 3.84
Illinois 51.04 47.47 1.50 w
Iowa 46.59 52.27 .58 .31 .25
Kansas 73.37 22.65 1.05 2.92
Maine 19.03 11.97 3.47 6.88 58.64
Maryland 44.82 55.14 w
Massachusetts 50.87 47.44 1.69
Michigan 62.20 37.78 w
Minnesota 34.27 28.06 36.96 .09 .34 .08 .20
Nebraska 53.98 46.02
Nevada 53.18 43.30 1.78 1.74
New Hampshire 30.88 66.08 2.71
New Mexico 54.22 45.78 w
New York 54.19 33.21 7.72 .11 1.11 .53 3.13
Ohio 50.00 44.58 3.47 1.95
Oklahoma 57.86 40.93 1.21
Oregon 30.07 64.55 .91 1.82 1.43 .70 .52
Pennsylvania 57.52 30.97 10.41 1.11
Rhode Island 50.98 42.14 .60 6.28
South Carolina 45.27 53.33 1.39
South Dakota 64.96 33.33 1.71
Tennessee 68.66 29.49 1.85
Texas 68.25 31.17 .55 w
Vermont 41.20 55.76 .98 1.52 .54
Wisconsin 59.73 38.67 .59 .63 .38
Wyoming 55.60 40.46 3.94
MEDIAN 52.11 43.94 1.21 1.33 1.39 1.43 .54 .53


Ballot Access News. is published by and copyright by Richard Winger ban@igc.apc.org. Note: subscriptions are available!
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Compilation copyright (c) 1998,1999 Bob Bickford