Ballot Access News -- June 1, 2000

Volume 16, Number 3

This issue was originally printed on yellow paper.

Table of Contents
  26. Subscription Information



On May 24, the 9th circuit ruled that a Washington state law, requiring that paid petitioners' names and addresses must be revealed in public reports which must be filed monthly, is unconstitutional. Win v Warheit, 98-35412. The decision was by Judge David R. Thompson, a Reagan appointee, and co-signed by Judges Stephen Reinhardt, a Carter appointee, and Thomas G. Nelson, a Bush appointee. The decision says the state does not have a substantial interest in requiring the reports. It says that the effect of the law is to intimidate paid petitioners. Evidence showed that some paid petitioners had been threatened while they were petitioning, and that at least one paid petitioner had quit, rather than have his name and address revealed during the duration of the petition drive.

The lower court had upheld the law. This is the first time that a Washington state election law has ever been invalidated by the 9th circuit (except that in 1985, the 9th circuit had invalidated the state's ballot access procedures for minor parties; but the U.S. Supreme Court had reversed that and restored the minor party restrictions).


On May 5, the 10th circuit ruled that a federal law restricting how much money a political party may spend to elect its candidates to Congress, is unconstitutional. FEC v Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee, 99-1211. The vote was 2-1. The law which was invalidated limits party contributions to its own candidates to the greater of $20,000 or 2 cents for each voter.

Back in 1996, the U.S. Supreme Court had ruled in this same case that the First Amendment protects a political party's right to spend freely on behalf of its candidates, if the party spending is not coordinated with the candidate's campaign.

That decision did not settle the question of expenditure limits on parties, when the party does coordinate its spending with its own candidates. That is the issue in the new opinion. The FEC has not decided whether to ask for a rehearing, or whether to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.

The decision was written by Judge Deanell Tacha, a Reagan appointee, and co-signed by Judge Paul Kelly, a Bush appointee. The dissent is by Judge Stephanie Seymour, a Carter appointee. The majority decision says, "In the case of political parties, a limit upon the amount a party can spend in coordination with its candidates certainly entails more than a 'marginal restriction' upon the party's free speech."

"Parties are diverse entities, one step removed from the candidate, and they exist for non economic reasons. Much like an advocacy group, a party functions to disseminate political ideas, not to amass capital. The resources it has available are not a function of its success in the economic marketplace, but its popularity in the political marketplace..."

"Many of the activities the FEC wishes to curtail are consistent with our model of representative democracy... Parties are simply too large and too diverse to be corrupted by any one faction...It is true that political parties have been involved in wrongdoing, dating back to the Tammany Hall machine. However, the electoral and litigation processes have always managed to right these wrongs. Given the importance of political parties to the survival of this democracy, we reject the notion that a party's influence over the positions of its candidates constitutes a subversion of the political process."

The dissent attacks the majority for "creating a special category for political parties based on its view of their place in American politics."


HB 2594, the bill to let some candidates who use the independent procedure choose a partisan label which would be printed on the ballot, has passed both houses of the Tennessee legislature. However, the versions of the bill in each house are somewhat different, and no conference committee to settle on a common version of the bill has yet been held. The legislature adjourns in mid-June.

Both versions of the bill provide that, for 2000, the only labels that are permitted are those which match the names of parties which polled 5,000 votes for president in Tennessee in 1996 ("Reform", "Green", and "Libertarian").

Candidates with labels this year would include the presidential candidates of those three parties, the U.S. Senate candidates of the Green and Libertarian Parties, 5 Libertarians running for U.S. House, and 8 Libertarians running for the state legislature. The petition deadline for independent candidates (for office other than president) has already passed, so there could be no other eligible candidates.

The Senate version says that, for elections beyond 2000, the right to a label only extends to parties which poll 2.5% for president in Tennessee in 2000. The House version makes that 5%.

Tennessee has not printed the name of any political party (other than Democratic and Republican) on the ballot since 1972.

The issue is also pending in court, but not in Tennessee. Last year a U.S. District Court ruled that the Constitution requires Ohio to let candidates who use the independent procedure, choose a label. Ohio is currently appealing to the 6th circuit. If Ohio loses in that court, the ruling would be binding on Tennessee, since Tennessee is also in the 6th circuit.


On May 8, a new lawsuit was filed to invalidate FEC regulations which permit the Commission on Presidential Debates to accept donations from Anheuser-Busch to pay for presidential debates which include only Vice-President Gore and Governor George W. Bush. Federal law forbids such corporate contributions to federal campaigns. Committee for a Unified Independent Party v FEC, 00-cv-3476, federal court, Manhattan. The Libertarian Party is the only political party plaintiff, although other parties may join later. A press conference to announce the suit was broadcast on C-SPAN, and featured Republican presidential candidate Alan Keyes, who spoke in support of the lawsuit.

Since the lawsuit was not filed by any candidate, it can proceed immediately to court. Lawsuits on this subject were filed in 1996 by Ross Perot and John Hagelin, but they never got a hearing because of federal law which requires candidates to first ask for relief from the FEC. The FEC denied such relief so late that the election was over before those cases could be heard. The 1996 Hagelin case is still pending in federal court in Washington, D.C.; the FEC is trying to get that case dismissed on the grounds that it is moot, despite the fact that Hagelin is running again this year.


On April 25, the Puerto Rico Supreme Court again upheld restrictions on how a new party gets on the ballot (a petition signed by 97,784 signatures; each signature must be notarized in a 7-day period; no one except attorneys can do the notarization). Partido Accion Civil v Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, AC-1999-20. The Court had previously upheld the law, but had granted a re-hearing; but now has re-confirmed its original decision.

Some of the plaintiffs are now free to carry on their fight in U.S. District Court, in a pending case called Cruz v Melecio, 99-1296 PG. That case had been stayed, pending the action in Commonwealth Court.


1. Arizona: there will be a trial in 2001 in Voting Integrity Project v Fleisher, the case over whether internet voting is discriminatory because certain classes of voters have easier access to computers than others. Extensive factual data is being sought for the trial.

2. Illinois: the 7th circuit held a hearing in Krislov v Rednour on April 20, over a law which requires petitioners for candidates to be registered voters. The lower court had held the law invalid. The circuit judges are Ann Williams (Clinton); Ilana Rovner (Bush), and Daniel Manion (Reagan).

3. Louisiana: on October 29, 1999, the State Supreme Court struck down a law making it illegal for holders of video draw poker licenses to contribute to candidates for state office. Penn v State, 751 So 2d 823.

4. Michigan: On March 7, a State Court of Appeals interpreted state law to require counties to use partisan elections for executive posts. Plaintiffs had hoped to win a ruling that Wayne County is free to try non-partisan elections for those offices. O'Hara v Wayne County Clerk, 607 NW 2d 380.

Michigan (2): The Libertarian Party is about to file a lawsuit against a new campaign finance law, which requires state candidates to swear under penalty of perjury that they have filed all legally required "statements, reports, error or omission notice responses, late filing fees and fines". If the statement is found to be false, the candidate is subject to $1,000 or imprisonment up to five years, or both. The party will argue that the law criminalizes potential inadvertent innocent errors, which are easy to make.

5. New Jersey: the state is appealing Council of Alternate Political Parties v State of New Jersey, the case over whether voters may register as members of minor parties. The Republican Party, but not the Democratic Party, joined the state's appeal. For more about the case, see B.A.N. of April 1, 2000.

6. New Mexico: on May 11, the State Supreme Court refused to hear the Libertarian Party case over whether it is entitled to a primary this year. The lower court had ruled that the party had enough registrations to be a qualified major party, but that it still can't be a major party because it didn't meet the 5% vote test in 1998. The issue is whether any statewide office counts, or only the gubernatorial vote counts. Libertarian Party v Vigil-Giron, 26156. The party will pursue its appeal in the State Court of Appeals.

7. North Carolina: on May 15, the Green Party sued to get more time to finish the party petition. The legal deadline was May 17. Nader 2000 v Bartlett, 5:00-cv-348BR, Raleigh.

8. South Carolina: on September 30, 1999, the 4th circuit struck down a law giving certain powers over county governments to state legislators who represent those counties. Vander Linden v Hodges, 193 F 3d 268. The basis for the decision is "one-person, one-vote": some of the legislators represent only a tiny fraction of a county, whereas other legislators might represent most of it, yet they all had equal power in that county's government.

9. South Dakota: on May 4, the Libertarian Party sued to overturn a law which makes it virtually impossible for new parties to place candidates for statewide office on their own primary ballot. Libertarian Party of S.D. v Hazeltine, 00-3021, federal court.

South Dakota (2): on April 18, a state court in Hughes County refused to place Lyndon LaRouche on the June presidential primary ballot, because he didn't comply with a Democratic Party rule that at least 48 supporters appear at various party caucuses around the state. Uncontested evidence was that Albert Gore had also failed to meet that rule, yet he was not kept off the ballot.

10. Texas: on April 17, the Voting Integrity Project asked the U.S. Supreme Court to hear its appeal against the state's early voting law. Voting Integrity Project v Bomer, 99-1685.


On May 24, Ohio law professor Bradley Smith was confirmed for a vacant seat on the Federal Election Commission. He is strongly in favor of fair treatment for minor parties. Any subscriber may request (from B.A.N.) a free bound copy of his 50-page Harvard Journal on Legislation article criticizing the U.S. Supreme Court for its indifference to ballot access rights (however, there are only five copies left).


On May 5, London voters used a form of Instant-Runoff Vote to choose a Mayor. The election was won by an independent, Ken Livingstone. He defeated ten other candidates. The rules permitted voters to mark a "one" next to their favorite choice, and a "two" next to a second choice. First place votes cast for candidates who did poorly in the first round, were transferred to the voter's second choice, until someone (in this case, Livingston) enjoyed a majority. There was very little reporting in the U.S. about this new (for Great Britain) election method. 2% of the voters spoiled their ballots.

In the voting for London Assembly, pure proportional representation was used. The final results: 9 Labor, 9 Conservative, 4 Liberal Democrat, 3 Green. If there had been no p.r., only the two major parties would have won any seats.


Nevada has a law which forbids a political party from nominating a candidate, unless he or she was a member of that party ever since September 1 of the preceding year. The constitutionality of this law has long been suspect, since in 1986 the U.S. Supreme Court said it would be unconstitutional for a state to tell a party that it could not nominate a non-member. This year, the Constitution Party (known in Nevada as the Independent American Party) nominated several candidates for the legislature who had not been members of the party as of September 1, 1999, and the state agreed to put them on the ballot anyway, despite the law.


On May 2, Nassau County, New York, the second-most populous county in the state outside of New York city, held a special election to fill a vacancy in its County Legislature (eleventh district). At stake was whether the Democrats or Republicans would control that body. The results:

Democratic: 5,878 48.47%
Republican: 2,474 20.40%
Green: 2,301 18.97%
Working Families: 599 4.94%
Reform: 444 3.66%
Conservative: 241 1.99%
Liberal: 120 .99%
Right to Life: 71 .59%

There were four candidates in the race. The Democrat was cross-endorsed by the Working Families, Reform and Liberal Parties. The Republican was cross-endorsed by the Conservative Party. The Green nominee, as well as the Right to Life nominee, were not cross-endorsed by any other party.


On March 7, South Carolina Governor James Hodges signed HB 3786, which changes the independent petition deadline from August 1 to July 15 (this year, the deadline will be July 17, since July 15 is a Saturday).

The bill also moves the deadline by which qualified parties must certify all their general election nominees, from September 1, to August 15. This is awkward, since the Democratic National Convention won't choose a presidential and vice-presidential candidate this year until August 17. The State Election Commission, which asked for the deadline changes, is aware of the problem, and may seek to amend this part of the new law. The legislature is only in session for a few more weeks, so it won't be easy.

The South Carolina change will be most damaging this year to the Green Party, since the other qualified parties which hoped to be on the South Carolina ballot are already on. Greens are planning to use the independent procedure for president.


Minnesota is now the 33rd state to have a procedure whereby a write-in candidate who desires to know how many votes were received may file a declaration of write-in candidacy. HF 2826 was signed into law on May 15. In the past, although Minnesota permitted write-in votes, no one ever tallied them, unless it appeared that the write-in candidate had won the election.


The Massachusetts Republican Party is suffering from that state's severe procedures for candidate access to primary ballots. Only one Republican even tried to get on the ballot for U.S. Senate this year, and he almost failed to collect the needed 10,000 signatures of Republicans or independents. The candidate, Jack E. Robinson, spent $100,000 to collect 10,073 valid signatures. The state has three qualified parties; the Democratic candidate, Senator Edward Kennedy, and the Libertarian candidate, Carla Howell, collected substantially more signatures with a smaller expenditure of money, although even the Libertarians spent $35,000.

Massachusetts and New York have the most severe ballot access laws for candidates seeking a place on primary ballots. The New York laws have slowly been getting easier, due to lawsuits, as well as a barrage of newspaper editorials against the laws over the last five years. In Massachusetts, by contrast, the press never seems to notice the issue, and as a result, the primary ballot access laws never improve.


There will be two minor party candidates for U.S. Senate in Florida this year, Joel Deckard of the Reform Party, and Joe Simonetta of the Natural Law Party. Except for an American Party candidate in 1974, they are the first ever minor party candidates for U.S. Senate on the Florida ballot since 1920. Deckard was formerly a Republican member of the U.S. House from Indiana between 1979 and 1983.


On May 12, the Republican National Committee Rules Committee voted to ask state legislatures to pass a new schedule for presidential primaries.

Republicans want the twelve states with the smallest populations to hold their presidential primaries in February. Generally, these are the states with only one or two members of the U.S. House. Territories would be included in that category.

Then, in March, the next-smallest group of 12 states would vote. These are generally the states with three, four or five members of the House. In April the moderately populous states would vote, and in May the most populous states would vote.

The plan, if implemented, would move primaries in Texas, California, Ohio and Illinois from March to May. That would automatically mean later petition deadlines for new parties in Texas, California, and Ohio; and later petition deadlines for independent candidates in Illinois (since, in these four states, those deadlines are tied to the primary date).

The plan would also move the West Virginia primary from May to March, which would automatically move minor party and independent deadlines (other than president) to March. A March deadline would almost certainly be held unconstitutional, which would force West Virginia to revise its petitioning rules, which now require petitioners to tell potential signers that if they sign, they can't vote in the primary.


COFOE (Coalition for Free & Open Elections), a coalition of nationally-organized minor parties, elected new officers on April 23 at a Board meeting in Brooklyn. Chair is David Belmont; Vice-Chairs are Lesley and Lenny Goldman. Re-elected were Secretary Si Gerson and Treasurer Alice Kelsey. COFOE also voted to donate $1,500 to the South Dakota lawsuit, over a law which make it very difficult for minor party candidates to get on their own party's primary ballot (see story above).


Indiana Democratic: Gore 219,604; Bradley 64,339; LaRouche 9,229.

Indiana Republican: Bush 330,095; McCain 76,569.

North Carolina Democratic: Gore 383,696; Bradley 99,796; LaRouche 11,525; no preference 49,905.

North Carolina Republican: Bush 253,485; McCain 35,018; Keyes 25,320; Bauer 3,311; no preference 5,383.

Dist. of Columbia Democratic: Gore 18,621; LaRouche 796.

Dist. of Columbia Republican: Bush 1,771; McCain 593.

Dist. of Columbia Green: misc. write-ins 40.

Dist. of Columbia Umoja Party: misc. write-ins 13.

Nebraska Democratic: Gore 72,275; Bradley 27,396; LaRouche 3,154.

Nebraska Republican: Bush 142,295; McCain 27,603; Keyes 11,827.

Nebraska Libertarian: Browne 93.

Nebraska Natural Law: Hagelin 4.

West Virginia Democratic: Gore 181,946; Bradley 46,711; McDonald 19,414; LaRouche 4,807.

West Virginia Republican: Bush 84,947; McCain 14,228; Keyes 5,172; Forbes 1,688; Bauer 1,261.

West Virginia Libertarian: delegates pledged to Browne polled between 189 and 135 votes each. Unpledged delegates polled between 189 and 122 each. Four Browne delegates were elected and three unpledged delegates were elected.

Oregon Democratic: Gore 245,165; LaRouche 31,466.

Oregon Republican: Bush 232,150; Keyes 36,325.

Idaho Democratic: Gore 26,980; LaRouche 2,983; uncommitted 5,802.

Idaho Republican: Bush 116,112; Keyes 30,333; uncommitted 10,958.

Kentucky Democratic: Gore 156,952; Bradley 32,338; LaRouche 4,927; uncommitted 24,187.

Kentucky Republican: 75,758; McCain 5,777; Keyes 4,329; Bauer 2,375; Forbes 1,192; uncommitted 1,710.

Arkansas Democratic: Gore 194,283; LaRouche 53,310.

Arkansas Republican: Bush 35,964; Keyes 8,814.

Also, B.A.N. did not previously carry the results of the New York Green primary, held in March. They were Nader 455, Biafra 86, Kovel 79, Gaskin 24.

The 22% LaRouche showing in Arkansas would ordinarily entitle him to six delegates to the national convention. However, the national party has a rule that votes for LaRouche don't count toward delegate selection.

2000 has seen several significant events in connection with minor party presidential primaries. This is the first year any presidential primary has ever been held for any minor party in Arizona, the District of Columbia, Michigan, Missouri, New York, Utah and West Virginia.


On May 25, the Federal Election Commission voted to approve the Reform Party's request that the $2.5 million of convention public funding be used to pay for the party's mail ballot process. The party rules provide that any voter may request a Reform Party presidential primary ballot from the state party. The expenses of such a mailing can now be paid from the federal money earmarked for the party's national convention.


On May 16, Oregon voters rejected a proposal to increase the number of signatures for initiatives from 8% of the last gubernatorial vote, to 12%.


The Mountain Party submitted 18,900 signatures to be on the West Virginia ballot for Governor; 12,730 are required. The signatures haven't been checked yet.


Alabama 39,536 5,000 already on 3,500 *6,700 already on *200 Aug 31
Alaska (reg) 6,606 #2,410 already on already on already on *3,200 already on Aug 8
Arizona 13,565 *#8,815 already on *finished already on 1,500 *finished June 14
Arkansas 21,181 #1,000 already on finished already on already on *250 Aug 1
California (reg) 86,212 149,692 already on already on already on already on already on Aug 10
Colorado (reg) 1,000 #pay fee already on already on already on already on already on July 10
Connecticut no procedure #7,500 *1,000 already on 800 *4,000 already on Aug 11
Delaware 241 4,819 already on already on already on already on already on Aug 19
D.C. no procedure es. #3,500 can't start can't start can't start can't start already on Aug 15
Florida be organized 82,203 already on already on already on already on already on Sep 1
Georgia 39,094 #39,094 already on *20,000 1,500 0 *2,200 Jul 11
Hawaii 602 #3,703 already on already on already on already on already on Sep 7
Idaho 9,835 4,918 already on already on already on already on *200 Aug 31
Illinois no procedure #25,000 *35,000 *10,000 *18,000 0 *6,000 June 26
Indiana no procedure #30,717 already on *12,000 *1,500 400 *1,000 Jul 17
Iowa no procedure #1,500 *200 finished 900 finished *700 Aug 17
Kansas 14,854 5,000 already on already on *disputed already on *200 July 31
Kentucky no procedure #5,000 already on already on 0 *5,000 *2,000 Aug 30
Louisiana est. (reg) 135,000 #pay fee 916 already on 20 53 114 Sep 5
Maine 21,051 #4,000 0 already on 0 *1,400 already on Aug 8
Maryland 10,000 25,607 already on *finished *need 1,000 *already on *5,500 Aug 7
Massachusetts est. (reg) 37,500 #10,000 already on *7,000 0 0 *4,000 July 31
Michigan 30,272 30,272 already on already on already on already on *9,000 July 19
Minnesota 104,550 #2,000 0 0 0 already on 0 Sep 12
Mississippi be organized #1,000 already on already on already on already on *200 Sep 7
Missouri 10,000 10,000 already on already on already on already on *4,500 July 31
Montana 5,000 #5,000 already on already on already on already on *1,000 Aug 1
Nebraska 5,453 2,500 already on 200 already on *800 *200 Aug 28
Nevada 4,099 4,099 already on 500 already on already on *500 July 7
New Hampshire 9,827 #3,000 *12,000 5,000 200 finished *200 Aug 9
New Jersey no procedure #800 0 finished 300 finished already on July 31
New Mexico 2,494 14,964 already on already on already on already on already on Sep 11
New York no procedure #15,000 can't start already on can't start can't start already on Aug 21
North Carolina 51,324 98,062 already on *finished 200 0 *6,500 June 30
North Dakota 7,000 4,000 0 already on 0 already on 0 Sep 7
Ohio 33,543 #5,000 already on finished already on finished *2,000 Aug 23
Oklahoma 43,680 36,202 *finished *finished *finished 0 *5,000 July 15
Oregon 16,663 13,755 already on *21,000 finished 5,500 already on Aug 28
Pennsylvania no procedure 21,739 *7,000 *8,000 *500 *3,000 *6,000 Aug 1
Rhode Island 15,323 #1,000 0 already on 0 0 0 Sep 7
South Carolina 10,000 10,000 already on already on already on already on 0 *July 17
South Dakota 6,505 #2,602 already on already on 200 *finished 0 June 20
Tennessee 24,406 25 0 6,000 0 0 0 Aug 17
Texas 37,381 56,117 already on *finished *finished *too late *finished *May 30
Utah 2,000 #1,000 already on already on already on already on *1,200 Aug 31
Vermont be organized #1,000 already on 250 already on already on 0 Sep 20
Virginia no procedure #10,000 *10,500 0 *200 *4,000 *1,100 Aug 25
Washington no procedure #200 can't start can't start can't start can't start can't start Jul 1
West Virginia no procedure #12,730 already on 4,000 already on 300 *100 Aug 1
Wisconsin 10,000 #2,000 already on 0 0 already on already on Sep 5
Wyoming 3,485 3,485 already on finished *already on already on *200 Aug 28
TOTAL STATES ON 34 23 21 *23 14

"Deadline" refers to procedure with the LATEST deadline. * -- means entry changed since last issue. # means that candidate procedure allows partisan label. Other multi-state parties on the ballot: in Florida, the American Reform, Southern, Soc.Workers and Socialist Parties. Socialist Party also is on in Colorado, and has *500 signatures in New Jersey, 400 in Ohio, 350 in Iowa, and 500 in Oregon.


Many parties which are organized and ballot-qualified in just one state, participate in the presidential election. Here is a list of some of them, and their plans:

1. Minnesota Independence Party: will decide whether to have a presidential candidate at its state convention on June 24.

2. Grassroots Party: is ballot-qualified in Vermont and active in Minnesota. On May 20, the Minnesota branch chose Dennis Lane for president and Dale Wilkinson for vice-president. Sometime in August, the Vermont branch is expected to nominate the same ticket. Lane is chair of the Vermont Grassroots Party; Wilkinson is chair of the Minnesota party.

3. New York Right to Life Party: will decide whether to nominate a presidential candidate at its state convention on August 19. If the party does nominate anyone, it will probably be either Pat Buchanan or Howard Phillips. Only once (in 1992) has the party cross-endorsed a major party nominee for president.

4. New York Liberal Party: is considered certain to cross-endorse the Democratic ticket; the formal decision will be made in late August.

5. New York Conservative Party: is considered certain to cross-endorse the Republican ticket; the formal decision will be made in early September.

6. New York Working Families: will decide whether to nominate, or cross-endorse, any presidential candidate sometime in August or September.

7. South Carolina Patriot Party: will make a decision in August, probably between Pat Buchanan and Ralph Nader. Buchanan is already assured of a ballot position in this state (assuming he gets the Reform nomination), since the Reform Party is on the ballot. South Carolina permits a candidate to be nominated jointly by two parties.

8. Vermont Liberty Union: will choose between Ralph Nader and David McReynolds (Socialist Party presidential nominee) sometime in August.

9. Utah Independent American: nominated Howard Phillips for president at its state convention on May 13. Phillips is also the nominee of the Constitution Party, which is on the Utah ballot. Utah law forbids anyone from appearing on the general election ballot under two party labels, so Phillips will choose the Independent American nomination, and there will be no Constitution presidential nominee in Utah.

The other one-state qualified parties don't expect to get involved in the presidential election. They are the Alaskan Independence Party, the Republican Moderate Party of Alaska, Umoja Party of D.C., Aloha Ina Party of Hawaii, the Cool Moose Party of Rhode Island, and the Progressive Party of Vermont. The West Virginia Mountain Party also will abstain from the presidential election, assuming it qualifies for the ballot.


The Southern Party will hold its first national convention in Charleston, South Carolina, June 30-July 3. It isn't running candidates this year. For more information, see


Montana State Representative Rick Jore, the Constitution Party's only legislator, has no Republican opponent this year. He does have a Democratic opponent, but the district has only elected Republicans during the 1990's. Jore was elected as a Republican in 1998 but he changed his affiliation to the Constitution Party in February 2000.


On the 15th of every month, the national Zogby presidential poll results are released. Zogby is the only poll which shows as many as six candidates. The results for May 15: Bush 42.4%; Gore 38.8%; Nader 4.4%; Buchanan 2.1%; Browne .7%; Hagelin .2%; undecided or other, 11.4%. Starting next month the poll will include Howard Phillips, the Constitution Party nominee, as well. See: the Zogby site seems to try very hard to move things around frequently and make it difficult to link to -- or even to find -- their otherwise very useful tables. Good luck.

Ballot Access News. is published by and copyright by Richard Winger Note: subscriptions are available!
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Compilation copyright (c) 2000 Bob Bickford